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The City The guide was updated:The historic city of Naples was founded about 3,000 years ago as Partenope by Greek merchants. Later, the settlement took the name of Palepolis, the old city, and in 475 BC it became Neapolis, the new city. Under various phases of foreign rule, the city developed continuously, until it became the capital of the most important of the pre-unification states, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The rulers of that Kingdom, the Bourbons, constructed a magnificent palace in nearby Caserta and filled the city with historic structures of all kinds.